How to use ‘a particular’ in a sentence

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… configuration facing a particular object, and then indicated the directions of other objects relative to this imagined heading. Besides strong effects of egocentric retrieval direction, retrieval was enhanced for objects and headings aligned with an…

… combined stimulus was larger than the sum of the responses to stimulation of the individual whiskers. The occurrence and magnitude of the facilitation were strongly dependent on the ISI. The ISI capable of producing facilitation for a

… energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X 1. 5 solar flare on 2011 March…

… fruit quality. We found no evidence that individuals belonging to a particular age or sex class led the group towards trees with fruit more often than did others. settings…

… the model, can be generated. To investigate the properties of s types of the mixed states, we analyzed them using the statistical mechanical method. We found that the storage capacity of the memory pattern and the storage capacity of only a

… to disappear upon stimulation with a supra-optimal antigen dose. This might indicate that the dose-response curve of a particular antigen is shifted towards higher doses of antigen in immunodeficiency states, which could have important consequences for the testing of immunocompromised patient…

… supports the previous results obtained on other organisms and evidence that Sri Lanka appears to be characterized by a particular fauna as compared to the Indian mainland. This island would therefore be considered as a specific distinct hotspot of biodiversit…

Japanese HIV- 1 isolate. These results suggest that a particular sequence within human chromosome 17 is prone to horizontal gene transfer into the HIV- 1 RT finger subdomain. This insertion confers selective advantage to HIV- 1 by its contribution to multi-drug resistance and restoration of impaired replication capacity. Peer reviewe…

We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was…

… back side of the objects. This suggests that integration of information across the fingers is equivalent to seeing an object from a particular view…

We investigated the microbial flora in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU 9 reporting the distribution of infections in different catheter sites. Results showed that 97 % of samples were positive; in particular 11 % were positive for two or more microbiol agents. Coagulase negative Staphylococci were the most commonly isolated. the detection of Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts suggested that these microrganisms are also involved in infections of hospitalized infants. No correlation between a specific microbial agent and a particular catheter type was found…

We investigated the means used by harpsichordists to communicate voice-specific melodic emphasis. Twelve harpsichordists were asked to perform a short Baroque polyphonic piece by Frescobaldi (1583 – 1643) on a harpsichord equipped with a MIDI console. Three conditions were tested, each requiring performers to emphasize a particular voice in the piece (soprano, alto, tenor). Four parameters were analyzed: velocity, note onset asynchrony, timing deviations, and articulation. Mean onset asynchronies were much larger than those observed in organ or piano performance, averaging more than 100 ms between outer voices. However, asynchronies did not vary significantly between conditions, suggesting that they do not play a major role in communicating voice emphasis. On average, notes belonging to the upper three voices were struck with a higher velocity and played with a more detached articulation when they were emphasized. Although timing deviation patterns were globally similar across all conditions, we observed local differences that corresponded to passages in which a specific melodic gesture was accentuated by means of ritenuto (tempo deceleration) …

We investigated the interface between scientific knowledge of commercial sheep farming and local communities of practice. Through combining socio-cultural and cognitive theories of learning, we applied a concept of community of practice to analysing the importance of the local Goat and Sheep Society for family-based sheep farming in Lyngen after the Second World War. A point of departure for this investigation was the extraordinary results in national rankings and competitions by some of these Lyngen sheep farmers. This paper empirically documents the dynamic, multi-faceted interaction between “barn floor” breeding practices and national-level breeding science. We thoroughly analysed this domain of knowledge as a practice-driven process that involves a particular configuration of practitioners, including newcomers and old-timers, households, local sheep breeding societies and national scientific knowledge institutions. Based on this notion of a community of practice, the relations between masters and apprentices are given particular attention. One particular characteristic of this community of practice is the institutional enmeshment between the local Goat and Sheep Breeding Society and the local Læstadian congregations. We argue that certain focal normative notions of the family and of the order of creation (Norwegian skaperordning) to care for the creation and to survive (Norwegian å berges) provide the motivational force to these knowledge innovations…

We investigated the importance of the spatial context of interactions in a multispecies marine epibenthic assemblage with respect to the outcomes of interspecific interactions, neighbour-specific growth rates, and the dynamics of spatial and mean-field models of the system. We compared the outcomes of interactions and overgrowth rates of pair-wise combinations of species in spatially simplified contrived interactions with the same combinations in an unmanipulated assemblage. While estimates of neighbour-specific growth rates were similar in both sets of interactions, the probability of a species winning a particular interaction was strongly dependent on whether the interaction was contrived or occurred in the unmanipulated assemblage. The dynamics of a spatial model and its mean-field equivalent parameterised from estimates of interaction outcome and neighbour-specific growth from contrived interactions were significantly different to the dynamics of models based on estimates of interaction outcome and neighbour-specific growth obtained from non-manipulated assemblages. Differences in the dynamics of models based on parameters from unmanipulated and contrived interactions are primarily due to differences in outcomes of interspecific interactions, while fluctuations in growth rates contribute to the variability around these dynamics. Our results suggest that conclusions about interspecific interactions and community dynamics examined in simplified spatial associations (e. g. in manipulative experiments) is likely to be limited to assemblages with a similarly simplified spatial structure, which is an unlikely occurrence in nature…

We investigated the genetic structure of Sorex unguiculatus and Sorex caecutiens populations in Hokkaido, Japan, using hypervariable microsatellite DNA markers. We used five microsatellite loci to type 475 S. unguiculatus individuals from 20 localities on the Hokkaido mainland and four localities from each of four offshore islands (and 11 shrews from one locality in southern Sakhalin for a particular analysis). We used six microsatellite loci to type 240 S. caecutiens individuals from 13 localities on the Hokkaido mainland. Genetic variation was high in mainland populations of both species and low in the island populations of S. unguiculatus. Allelic richness and island size were positively correlated for S. unguiculatus, suggesting that genetic drift occurred on those islands due to small population size. In addition, four insular populations of S. unguiculatus were genetically differentiated from the mainland populations, although clear phylogeographic clustering was not confirmed among populations on the Hokkaido mainland for either S. unguiculatus or S. caecutiens. Heterozygosity excess was observed in more than half of the populations including the mainland populations of the two species, suggesting recent bottleneck events in these populations. Population dynamics of the shrews might be explained by a metapopulation scheme. According to autocorrelation analysis, the extent of non-random spatial genetic structure was approximately 100 km. Isolation by distance was observed in S. unguiculatus, but not in S. caecutiens although there is a positive trend. The lack of correlation for S. caecutiens might have been due to small sample size. Thus, no obvious differences in population genetic structure were found between the two species on the Hokkaido mainland in the present study, while previous investigations using mitochondrial DNA sequences inferred that these two species might have rather different biogeographic histories…

We investigated the first-order inputs to contour-shape mechanisms using the shape-frequency after-effect (SFAE), in which adaptation to a sinusoidally modulated contour causes a shift in the apparent shape-frequency of a test contour in a direction away from that of the adapting stimulus [Kingdom F. A. A., & Prins N. (2005 a). Different mechanisms encode the shapes of contours and contour-textures. Journal of Vision 5 (8), 463, (Abstract) ]. We measured SFAEs for adapting and test contours (and edges) that differed in the contrast-polarity, scale (or blur) and magnitude of luminance contrast. The rationale was that if the SFAE was found to be reduced when adaptor and test differed along a particular dimension of luminance contrast, contour-shape mechanisms must be tuned to that dimension. Our results reveal that SFAEs manifest (i) a degree of selectivity to luminance contrast polarity for both even-symmetric (contours only) and odd-symmetric (both contours and edges) luminance profiles; (ii) a degree of selectivity to luminance scale (or blur); (iii) higher selectivity to fine compared to coarse scale for broadband edges (iv) a small preference for equal-in-contrast adaptors and tests. These results suggest that contour shapes are not encoded in the form of a sparse, cartoon-like sketch, as might be presumed by local energy (i. e. non-phase-selective) or form-cue invariant models, but instead in a form that is relatively ‘feature-rich. …

We investigated the extent to which understanders monitor shifts in time and space during ®lm comprehension. Participants viewed a feature-length ®lm and identi®ed those points in the ®lm in which they perceived a change in situation. We performed an a priori analysis of the ®lms to identify the shifts in time, the movement of characters, and region. The relationship between the theoretical analysis of the ®lms and the participants judgements of situational change was assessed. The results provide support for the Event Indexing Model and suggest that situation models for ®lmed events are indexed along multiple dimensions of situational continuity. Furthermore, the pattern of results was similar for narrative ®lm as they are for narrative text. This ®nding suggest that there are general mechanisms for event understanding that operate independently of medium or mode of experience. Copyright # 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. It has long been assumed that stories conveyed through discourse represent much more than what is explicitly provided in a text. Rather, they convey a complex set of events that bear some resemblance to real-world events. In particular, narrative events occur within a particular time, place, and are causally connected. Situation models can capture the people, spatial and temporal settings, the goal plans and actions, and event sequences tha…

We investigated the environmental factors providing signals for gamete release in fucoid algae, with a particular focus on the inhibitory effect of water motion. The release of gametes by Fucus distichus occurred in still water under high light and was associated with the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in tide pools isolated from the ocean during daytime low tides. Diurnal patterns of gamete release that lasted for 2 – 3 d, as in natural populations, were found in receptacles cultured in a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod under calm conditions or in a simulated tidal regime. Constant light disrupted the diurnal component of release, however, suggesting that an endogenous circadian periodicity was absent. The effects of increased [DIC] on cultured receptacles under calm conditions were similar to the inhibitory effects of high water motion; both conditions reduced release in several species from both tide pool and intertidal habitats. Bicarbonate concentration, rather than carbon dioxide, or carbonate, was shown to be the component of the DIC system most closely correlated (inversely) with gamete release in the intertidal fucoid Pelvetia compressa. The hypothesis that gamete release is triggered by DIC depletion in the unstirred boundary layer during periods of low water motion in the light was further supported by experiments with P. compressa. These showed that gamete release was not inhibited by high water motion when DIC was absent. In the same experiments, high water motion inhibited release at 2 and 20 mmol/L DIC, confirming that the sensitivity of gamete release to water motion is DIC dependent. The ability of fucoid algae to couple physiological processes (e. g., photosynthesis) with life history events (gamete release) allows external fertilization to occur under favorable hydrodynamic conditions, and may contribute greatly to reproductive success in organisms inhabiting periodically turbulent environments…

… target being either color was 0. 5; however, the conditional probability – the likelihood of a particular color given a particular combination of two cues – varied from 0. 1 to 0. 9. We found that participants searched more efficiently for…

… presented. Variations of several controlling parameters are graphically illustrated and discussed. Comparative profiles of temperature and heat transfer coefficients for Newtonian shear thinning and shear thickening fluids have been plotted and tabulated. A comparison with the existing study for a particular case appears to be in good agreement…

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